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SCIENCE OF YOGA

Sanskrit Glossery
School of Santhi
















   more information   





  yoga means union, to unite, to join, detachment, union with the supreme being, there are different paths, eight limbs of yoga to achieve union:
1. yamas
2. niyamas
3. yoga asanas
4. pranayama
5. pratyahara
6. dharana
7. dhyana
8. samadhi


 karma means, action, work and deed, known as law of cause and effect, fruit of action

 karma yoga
the path of selfless action in which one acts without expecting the fruits of one´s actions. When the practice is successful it results in a balanced mind

 bhakti means devotion, divine love

 bhakti yoga means the path of devotion, is the final stage of union with God.

 swara yoga the path of yoga based on the sience of nasal breath

 rajas means passion

 raja yoga the path of yoga based on the sience by suspension the thinking principle one achieve union at will

 jnana means knowledge, wisdom

 jnana yoga the path of yoga based on knowledge answering the question who am I

 kundalini the kundam means 'pond'. It also means 'cave'. It also has another meaning 'hidden'. Kundalini means that which is hidden. The power that is hidden under all material manifestation is called Kundalini

 kundalini yoga the path of yoga activating the spiritual cosmic energy that lies dormant at the base of the spine

 tantra means expanded consciousness

 tantra yoga is also called maha yoga, "the great yoga" and is a combination of
1. mantra yoga
2. hatha yoga
3. kundalini yoga
(laya yoga)
4. raja yoga
In tantra yoga it is very important to work with prana and through various kinds of breathing techniques

 prana means vital life force, prana is devided into five types:
1. udana, the head and throat region
2. prana, the cheast region
3. samana, the stomach region
4. apana, the intestinal region
5. vyana, the entire body

 pranayama means concious breath control, various kinds of breathing techniques

 chakras energy centres in the human body, each associated with a particular state of conciousness

 mooladhar the first chakra, the root centre, situated between the anus and the genitals, corresponds to the coccygeal plexus of the nerves and controls the excretory and sexual functions of the body

 swadhishthan the second chakra, situated just below the spinal column, correspond to the sacral plexus of nerves and controls the consiousness in a person

 manipura the third chakra, situated in the spine at the level of the navel, relate to the solar plexus of nerves and takes care of the digestive, assimilative and temperature controlling system of the body

 anahat the fourth chakra, the heart centre, situated at the back of the heart, relate to the cardiac plexus of the nerves and controls the heart, lungs, nerves, the diaphragm, etc.

 vishuddhi the fifth chakra, the throat centre, situated at the level of the throatpit, correspond to the cervical plexus of the nerves and controls the thyroid, upper palate, epiglottis, etc.

 ajna the sixth chakra, the eyebrow centre, situated in the middle of the brain, behind the midpoint between the eyebrows, correspond to the cervical plexus of the nerves and controls the thyroid, upper palate, epiglottis, etc.

 sahasrar the seventh chakra, the crown centre, situated at the top of the head, correspond to the pituitary gland, who takes care of all other glands & systems of the body. The seventh chakra is the seat of cosmic awareness.

 bindu means point and is another chakra situated on the head between the sixth and the seventh chakra, when awakening this chakra emanates nectar, amrit, which revenates the whole body.

 asana means posture, bodily position

 Patanjali the author of the yoga sutras scriptures

 YOGA SUTRAS the traditional yoga scriptures written by Patanjali 200 BC

 dhyana means meditation

 satsang means being together with, in the company of the wise

 guru means spiritual teacher, spiritual guide, preceptor

  Yoga is an
over 5000 years old Indian science and has not been discovered by the swamis, gurus, organizations nor any specific school teaching yoga today.

  Certainly no one can copyright yoga and claim that they are the owner of this age-old knowledge.

  Yoga is a part of the Indian spiritual tradition.

  Among all the yoga teachers it is important for a yoga student to find and choose an experienced yoga master who can guide and help you grow on your spiritual path with love and care.

  You will always know by heart when you have found the right yoga teacher most suitable for you.

  The different schools around the world are mostly specialized in one or more paths of the yoga tradition.

  The classical yoga tradition has been passed on from one generation to the next always through a close relation between Master and student. In a typical guru and sisya relation, based on direct learning from the lips of the Spiritual Yoga Guru.

  The Guru guides his disciples and leads his students towards a personal growth on the spiritual path of yoga.

  As in all other fields even in yoga you find more or less skilled teachers with different levels of study, practice and experience. Some have studied in the Indian traditional way others have not.

  To achieve the benefits from yoga daily practices are most important.

  Yoga is a sience you can´t learn just by reading it has to be practiced.

  In yoga you have to unite knowledge with practice and grow spiritually by experience.

  Swami Santhiprasad's Yoga tradition is called traditional or classical Yoga. The kind of yoga working with every part - through physical yoga, breathing exercises, deep relaxation and meditation, with an attitude of surrender as in Tantra Yoga.

  You are most welcome to take part in our spiritual yoga programs.

 







School of Santhis glossary Sanskrit to English
 


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A

ABHAYAM:
fearless
ABHIMANA:
egoism, identification with the body
ABHYASA:
spiritual practice
Adbhuta:
wonder
Adi shakti:
primal or supreme power
ADHIKARI:
someone qualified
ADHISHTHANA:
substratum, support
ADHYASA:
superimposition or false attribution of properties of one thing on another thing
ADHYATMIC:
spiritual
ADHYAYANA:
study
ADVAITA:
non-duality
AGRAHYA:
unknowable
AGni:
vedic sacred fire
AHAmKARA:
ego
AHIMSA:
non-injury in thought, word and deed
AISVARYA:
divine powers
AJARAM:
without old age
AjÑa chakra:
the third eye center
ALABDHABHUMIKATVA:
feeling of it is impossible to see reality
ALASYA:
laziness
AMARA:
immortal
AMARA-PURUSHA:
immortal being
AMRITAM:
immortal
AMRITA nadi:
the immortal nadi
ANADI:
beginningless
ANAHATA:
mystic sound heard by yogis
ANANDA:
bliss, happiness, joy
ANANDA-GHANA:
cloud of bliss
ANANDA-SVARUPA:
the form of bliss
ANANDAMAYA:
full of great happiness
ANANTAM:
infinity
ANna:
food
ANTAHKARANA:
internal instrument such as mind, intellect, ego and the subconscious mind
ANTARATMAN:
inner Self
ANTARYAMIN:
inner witness
ANUBHAVA:
experience
APanA:
one of the five main pranas
APTA:
realized
ARHATA:
a perfected soul
ASAMPRAJNATA:
highest superconscious state where the mind is completely annihilated and reality experienced
ASANA:
posture
ASHRAM:
hermitage, monastery
ASHTANGA:
eight limbs
ASURIC:
demoniacal
ATMA-JNANA:
knowledge of the self
ATMA-SVARUP:
the essential nature of the self
ATMAN:
the self
AVARANA:
veil of ignorance
AVIDYA:
ignorance
AYURVEDA:
the ancient Indian science of medicine


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B

BENARES:
holy pilgrimage centre of Hindus, now called Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh, India
BHAGAVAD-GITA:
scriptures containing Lord Krishna's teachings
BHAGAVATA:
name of a Purana
BHAJAN:
devotional song
BHAKTA:
devotee of God
BHAKTI:
devotion, divine love
BHARATAVARSHA:
India
BHAVA(NA):
feeling, mental attitude
BHAYANAKA-SABDA
fear inducing sound
BHOGI:
enjoyer
BHUMA:
the unconditioned, the great infinite Brahman
BHUTA-SIDDHI:
A psychic power by which mastery is gained over the elements
Bindu:
point, the supreme truth, the seed of all manifestations
BODHISATTVA:
compassionate, concern for others welfare, someone who devotes his life to help all beings
BRAHMA-CHINTANA:
constant thinking of Brahman
BRAHMA-JNANA:
direct Knowledge of Brahman
BRAHMA-NISHTHA:
someone established in the knowledge of Brahman
BRAHMA-SROTRI:
someone with knowledge of the Vedas and the Upanishads
BRAHMA-SUTRAS:
classical vedantic scripture
BRAHMA-TEJAS:
spiritual halo
BRAHMA-VIDYA:
science of Brahman, knowledge of Brahman, learning pertaining to Brahman or the absolute reality
BRAHMACHARYA:
practice of celibacy, purity in thought, word and deed
BRAHMAMUHURTA:
the time between 4 am - 6 am
BRAHMAN:
the absolute reality; God
BRIHADARANYAKA:
name of an Upanishad
BUDDHA:
someone who is totally purified from all defilements and who has realized all that can be known
BUDDHI
intellect




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C

CHAITANYA
pure consciousness
CHAKRAS
energy centres in the human body, each associated with a particular state of conciousness
CHANDOGYA
name of an Upanishad
CHELA
disciple
CHIRANJIVI
someone who has gained eternal life
CHIT
truth
CHITTA
subconscious mind


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D

DAIVIC
divine
DAMA
control of senses
DARSHAN
vision
DAYA
mercy
DEHA
body
DEVAS
celestial beings
DEVAta
devine form
DHARANA
concentration
DHARMA
code of conduct, living as enjoined by the sacred scriptures, virtue
DHYANA
meditation
DIVYA-DRISHTI
divine perception
DVESHA
repulsion, dislike


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E

EKADASI
eleventh day of the Hindu lunar fortnight
G

GANDHA
river Ganges
GAYATRI
goddess, one of the most sacred vedic mantras
GITA
sacred script, Bhagavad-Gita
GUNA
qualities of energy, positive attributes or virtues, the three gunas are
1. sattva - equanimity, balance, lightness
2. rajas - passion, activity
3. tamas - sloth, inertia
GURU
spiritual teacher, guide, preceptor


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H

HASYA:
joy, humor
HAVAN
sacred oblations
HIRANYAGARBHA
cosmic intelligence, cosmic mind, the supreme lord of the universe
hrit
heart


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I

ICHCHA
omnipotence
IDA
lunar nadi
INDRA
the lord of gods, the ruler of heaven
INDRIYAS
sense organs and work organs
ISHVARA
lord, god


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J

JADA
non-sentient
JAPA
individual soul, repetition
JIVA
the individual soul
JNANA
spiritual knowledge, wisdom
JNANA-INDRIYAS
organs of knowledge or perception
JNANI
wise person


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K

KAIVALYA:
Emancipation, state of absolute independence
KARMA:
actions operating through the law of cause and effect
KARMA-INDRIYAS:
organs of action - tongue, hands, feet, genital organ and anus
KARMA-KANDI:
one who observes strictly the duties ordained in the scriptures
KARMASRAYA:
receptacle of actions
KARUNA:
sadness, compassion
KASHAYA:
hidden desires
KIRTAN:
singing devotional songs
KRIYA:
type of exercise in Hatha Yoga
KSHAMA:
forgiveness
KUNDALINI:
that which is hidden, the power that is hidden under all material manifestation, the spiritual cosmic energy located in the individual
KUNDAm:
pond, cave and hidden
KUTIR:
small cottage, hut


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L

LAYA:
merging, dissolution
LINGA-SARIRA:
subtle body, astral body
LOBHA:
greed


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M

MAHA:
great
MAHABHARATA:
hindu epic
MAHANT:
great sage
MAHAPURUSHA:
a great soul
MAHARISHI:
great sage
MAHASAMADHI:
the departure of a Self-realized saint from his mortal coil
MAHATMA:
great soul
MAITRI:
friendship
MANAS:
mind
MANONASA:
destruction of mind
MANTRA:
sacred syllable or word, or set of words through the repetition and reflection of which one attains perfection
MAYA:
the illusive power of God.
MOHA:
infatuation
MOKSHA:
liberation
MOUNA:
vow of silence
MOUNI:
one who observes silence
MUKTI:
liberation
MUMUKSHU:
one who aspires after moksha or liberation
MUNI:
ascetic
MURTI:
idol


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N

NADA:
mystic sound
NIRODHA:
control or restraint
NIRVANA:
liberation; final emancipation
NIRVIKALPA-SAMADHI:
superconscious state where there is no modification of the mind or Triputi
NITYA-SIDDHA:
liberated soul of marvellous powers who is ever present on the astral plane
NIVRITTI:
renunciation
NIYAMA:
second step in Raja Yoga, observance - purity, contentment, austerities, etc


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O

OJAS:
spiritual energy
OM:
sacred monosyllable symbolizes Brahman
OORDHVARETA:
Yogi who has stored up the seminal energy in the brain after sublimating the same into spiritual energy


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P

PARIVRAJAKA:
wandering monk
PARAM-DHAMA:
supreme abode
PARAMAHAMSA:
highest class of sannyasins
PASU-SVABHAVA:
animal nature; bestial nature
PATANJALI:
the author of Yoga-Sutras
PRAKRITI:
Mother Nature, causal matter
PRANA:
vital energy; life-breath
PRANAVA:
the sacred monosyllable Om
PRANAYAMA:
practice of breath-control
PRATYAHARA:
abstraction of senses; fifth step in Raja Yoga
PREMA:
divine love
PRITHVI:
earth
PURANA:
hindu myths and legends
PURNA-JNANI:
full-blown sage
PURNA-YOGI:
full-blown yogi
PURUSHA:
Supreme Being


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R

RAGA:
attachment
RAJA:
king
RAJAS:
one of the three qualities of Prakriti which generates passion and restlessness
RAJA-YOGA:
a system of Yoga generally taken to be the one propounded by Patanjali Maharishi
RAJASUYA-YAJNA:
a sacrifice performed by a monarch as a mark of his subduing all other kings
RAMAYANA:
holy narative of Lord Rama
RASA:
taste
RASASVADA:
tasting the bliss of lower samadhi
Raudra:
anger
RISHI:
sage
RISHIKESH:
sacred place in the Himalayas
RUPA:
form


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S

SADHAKA:
spiritual aspirant
SADHANA:
spiritual practice
SADHU:
pious man, sannyasin
SAGARA:
ocean
SAHASRANAMA:
the thousand names of the Lord
SAKSHI:
witness
SAKTI:
power, the feminine aspect of divinity
SAKTI-SANCHAR:
transference of power by a developed Yogi
SAMA:
serenity, control of mind
SAMADHI:
oneness, the state of superconsciousness where absoluteness is experienced attended with all-knowledge and joy.
SAMSARA:
the process of worldly life
SAMSKARAS:
impressions in the subconscious mind
SAMYAMA:
perfect restraint, an all-complete condition of balance and repose, concentration, meditation and Samadhi
SANKARA:
well known teacher of Vedanta philosophy
SANKIRTAN:
singing of divine songs
SANNYASINS:
someone who have embraced the life of complete renunciation
SanthI:
peace
SATCHIDANANDA:
sat - existence
chid - knowledge
ananda - bliss
SATSANG:
association with the wise
SATTVA:
purity - one of the three qualities of nature
SATYAm:
truth
SATYA-YUGA:
the age of truth, the first of the four Hindu time cycles
SHABDA:
sound
SHAktipath:
transmission of spiritual energy
SHAntA:
calmness
SHringarA:
love
SIDDHI:
psychic power
SIVA:
Lord Siva - bestower of auspiciousness on his devotees
SLOKA:
hymn, verse of praise
SOmA:
nectar
SPARShA:
touch
SRADDHA:
faith
SRI:
auspiciousness, putting sri before a name means the person is qualified and done as a mark of courtesy and auspiciousness
STOTRA:
hymn
SUDDHA:
pure
SUKHA:
happiness
SUSHUMNA:
the main astral tube in the human body running inside the spinal column
SUTRA:
aphorism
SVADHYAYA:
study of scriptures
SVARUPA:
essential nature, reality


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T

TAMAS:
the third of the three gunas the qualities of nature generating inertia, laziness, dullness and infatuation
TAmAsik:
sloth, inertia, darkness
TANMATRA:
priciple, only that, subtle, undifferentiated root elements of matter
TANMATRAs:
pure essences, principles, pure frequencies
TANTRA:
expanded conciousness
TAPAS:
austerity
TAPASCHARYA:
practice of austerity
TATTVA:
element, essence, principle
TATTVAs:
eternal verities
TEHSILDAR:
revenue officer
TRIPUTI:
the triadseer, sight and seen
TRISHNA:
sensehankering
TURIYA:
the state of superconsciousness, the fourth state transcending the waking, dreaming and deep sleep states, nondual, transcendental consciousness
TYAGA:
renunciation of egoism, desires and the world


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U

UDDALAKA:
great sage of yore
UPADESA:
spiritual advice
UPANISHADS:
revelation, scriptures dealing with the ultimate truth and its realization


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V

VAhanA:
carrier, vehicle
VAIRAGYA:
dispassion
VASANA-KSHYA:
desireless
VASANAS:
subtle desires
VASTU:
article
vayu:
air
VEDANTA:
school of hindu thoughts, based on the Upanishads
VEDANTIN:
someone following the path of Vedant
VEDAS:
the most ancient authentic scripture of the hindus, a revealed scripture and therefore free from imperfections
vedic:
of the Veda, of the sacred teachings
VEERYA:
courage, seminal energy
VETTA:
knower
VibhatsaA:
disgust
VICHARA:
enquiry into the nature of the self, truth, absolute, brahman
vidya:
knowledge
VIGRAHA:
attack
VIKSHEPA:
the tossing of mind
VISHAYA:
sense-objects
VIVEKA:
discrimination
VRITTI:
mental modifications, qualities, waves in the mind
VYAVAHARA:
worldly activity


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Y

YAJNAVALKYA:
great sage of yore
YAMA:
first step in raja yoga, eternal vows, non-violence, truthfulness,
Yantra:
pattern, shape, form
YOGA:
to unite, to join, to attach, union with the supreme being, the union of all aspects of an individual - body, mid and soul
YOGI:
practitioner of yoga, yoga adept, someone established in yoga
YONI:
female source
 

 


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